United States founded NATO in 1948 with two purposes. First prevent European countries, weakened after 2nd WW, fell under the political influence of the USSR. The second provided militar bases for possible open confrontation with URSS, spearhead its expansion in Europe, as at present time.
The Spain-USA Defensive Agreement 26th september 1953, HA post, signed by Alberto Martín Artajo, Generalisimo Francisco Franco Foreing Affairs Minister, and the US President Ainserhawer Ambassador Clement Dunn, is one of the three Agreements signed in the so called "Madrid Pacts". USA manage to install military bases in Spain and close the clamp on the Mediterranean sea.
The agreement was show to the public by the fascist regime of General Franco as a model of mutual aid, military and economic, between "two powers". USA secret clauses reserved the unilateral initiative and use of the facilities. USA kept the space under American laws.
USA started investing and building military bases and installations. USA held the sovereignty of the bases and, despite participating staff from both countries, were governed by U.S. law. The impact of the agreements conferred to Spain the figure of vassalage and the duty to automatically go war if U.S. did.
In 1963, with the sign of the "Joint Declaration", the bases went to Spanish sovereignty. It results in the recognition of Spain as a "strategic ally", confirmed by the construction of the NASA satellites monitoring and spying center of Robledo de Chavela, Madrid, and the construction of the first nuclear power plant, in Zorita, Guadalajara. Nevertheless those maintaining American court of jurisdiction. American plans for Spain were large, judging from the investment.
From 1973, with the advent of satellite technology, most bases and checkpoints become obsolete and was gradually transferred to the Spanish army.
In 1986, after decades of joint maneuvers, Spain joins NATO. The novelty of the covenant is that the NATO organization controls the militar bases and facilities, not America. But if the United States controls NATO it was not a substantial change. Translate, USA had no staff or facilities to mantein becouse subcontracts Spain to do instead. It was cheaper.
Everyone knows the large American military bases of NATO in Spain, as Torrejon de Ardoz, now used for civilian services as to NASA, Zaragoza Spanish airbase that supports American logistical needs and Rota and Moron as permanent NATO military bases. But what of those other facilities?
U.S. military bases and facilities:
|American and Spanish militars recovering the nuclear bomb|
fallen in Palomares during air maneuvers
In 1957, the Seville airport was included in the "Hispanic-American Agreement" for the installation of a supply base. A track was used outside the civil service. Works were performed in the terminal and control tower. It was dedicated to military training and testing. Hence possessing a large military hospital, built about 1963. The military airport was transform in civil in 90s and runs until today. CIVILIAN USE.
San Pablo, Seville, Military Hospital.
Between 1971 and 1975, the facilities was remodeling, expanding the parking lot, and building an state complex. At the end of 70s the military hospital is ceded to the Spanish army, being in the 80s and after many reforms when it comes into service as a civil hospital. It was in service until renovation of the Virgen de la Macarena Hospital . Today still hospital, state complex and other facilities are abandoned and awaiting demolition. DEMOLISHED.
Reus (Tarragona), airbase.
The expropriation works because of construction began in 1941, building an aerodrome. Instalations was joined to the Madrid Pact Treaty as supply and training base for USAF. It was closed in 1981. The airstrip are still operational today for civilian use as dependent Aena Airport since 1998. CIVILIAN USE.
Ferrol, A Coruña, Shipyard.
Shipyard dedicated since inauguration to build warships. Through the cooperation contract at 1953, the Spanish government began the construction of ships with American technology, waiting to obtein some access to it. Due to the low cost of labor hand and good strategic position for transatlantic travel had to be expand, modernize and train its workers, some of whom traveled to USA to be introduced on new technologies.
Currently managed by the company Navantia, IZAR group, manufactures boats for bélic and militar porpouses. MILITARY USE.
Cartagena (Murcia). Navy base.
Base use for suplying and recreation for American ships in the Mediterranean operations, the Sixth Fleet. In 1944 the United States also made the donation of a field hospital of forty beds setting in the Baluarte de San Pedro Claver in Cartagena, at that time called Naval War Hospital. This site was operative until 1st of March 1980 without be modified. CIVIL AND MILITAR USE.
Cartagena's military shipyards.
The shipyard was oriented towards the construction of special vessels such as submarines and minesweepers. Operated by NAVANTIA co. has special factory areas avalabeled in production, sale and maintenance of diesel engines for various applications: ships, tanks, power plants, cogeneration plants and traction. MILITARY USE.
Puig Major (Mallorca) military Air Force base.
Puig Major is the highest mountain in Mallorca, with a height of 1,445 m, and is the biggest peak of the Sierra de Tramuntana, with restricted access. Their radar provides image from Gibraltar to Malta even though the satellites today has higher resolution. The building is located right at the top of the peak and it is named after a military radar tower. Built and installed by the Americans in 1958. There are doubts about the nature of military installations and whether the responsibility lies with the Spanish or American army. Presumably SPANISH MILITARY USE.
Menorca. Navy base.
In 1825 the Americans manage to set on a stable, Mahon naval base, first base overseas that created outside its borders. Although it has been granted part of the facilities for civil use military use is maintained. The Americans have indicated that in the Balearics has one of the best submarine bases in the world "and not properly cultivated." Presumably SPANISH MILITARY USE.
Guardamar de Segura, Alicante, Naval radio station.
In Campo de Guardamar the U.S. military installed in 1962 a radio antenna, "the American's Tower", 370 and 475m tall over the sea, and belonging to the Spanish Armada. Its transmitter is controlled from the base of Rota. After the first Gulf War the U.S. Army stopped using these facilities, passing to spanish Navy ownership, who called the base "Camp Santa Ana" and now belongs to the Spanish Navy. Its main objective is to control maritime traffic in the Mediterranean, especially the submarine fleet, which have their main base nearby, in the Port of Cartagena. Today is located a few meters from civil homes and developments. MILITARY USE.
Sierra de Aitana, Alicante, airbase and radio station.
In the Sierra de Aitana, between the towns of Alcoleja and Confrides, Alicante, is the EVA Air Surveillance Squadron No 5 with the Naval Radio Station. Located at 1558 m, the highest mountain in the province. Its construction began in 1957 and ended in 1960. It was the result of the bilateral agreement between Spain and the U.S., 1953. In 1964, the base was finally ceded by the United States, going to be owned by the Spanish Armada (Navy). The Aitana radar guide NATO sea navigation and air traffic into the Middle East and much of the Maghreb. In February 2007, was published in the Official Information, Defense Ministry's intention to dismantle the military base of the Air Force of the Sierra de Aitana, in order to optimize resources. ALLEGEDLY DEMOLISHED.
Sonseca, Toledo, nuclear surveillance observatory.
Is still part of the global network of detectors of Sovietic underground nuclear explosions warning of possible experiments. He is currently a research seismic and geological laboratory . CIVILIAN USE.
Inoges in the municipality of the Frasno, Zaragoza. Airbase.
Its construction started in 1955 and ends in 59. He summoned an air squadron of the USAF and a radar installation. In 1963, U.S. personnel moved, leaving a small group of USAF officers as advisers and moving the base control to Spanish Air force. Even in 1986 held protests against the military installations occupied by the Yankees. The base remains operational. MILITARY USE.
Humosa, Madrid, Comunicacion station.
Tropospheric station installed in the Humosa Saints, near Alcalá de Henares. It was and is central coordination of the communications network. In the 80 control functions go to Naples, home of the Western defense in the Mediterranean. MILITARY USE.
Gorramendi (Navarre) and The Frasno (Zaragoza), bases.
Were sites of ancient tropospheric communications network "486L, MEDCOM" of the USAF. There were also stations in Guardamar de Segura (Murcia), San Pablo (Seville) and the Humosa Saints (Madrid). MILITARY USE.
Elizondo, Navarre, Base Warning and Control Air Army. Huge
<< "forests" of antennas, towers, bunkers, acuertalamientos, buildings of 15 storeys ... Everything came out of nowhere in 1954 at the summit of Mount Gorramendi in Elizondo (Navarra). That American base called Control Warning Squadron 877 W-6, was for 20 years the epicenter of the mystery until everything disappeared in 1974 after being blown fulminant facilities. The Franco regime was never clear about the activities that took place there, but it was suspected that it was a secret base communications prepared for any eventuality nuclear >>.Right now demolished and in ruins. DEMOLISHED.
Estaca de Bares, Galicia, Navy Base.
This base was opened in 1962 to operate in the LORAN system (Long Range Aid to Navigation). In 1978 passes to the USAF . The base served as a communications station until 1991. Demolition planned for 2007. In present days these facilities are in ruins. Almost from its opening was the source of all kinds of myths and legends, even saying that nuclear submarines were located. DEMOLISHED.
L'Estartit, (Baix Empordà), Catalonia, Navy base.
Also belonging to the naval base LORAN system. Located on Mount Rocamaura. The base was abandoned in 1994. The demolition of the military base antenna culminated in May 98 the dismantling of the military base. In recent years only worked on it a guidance system for boats left satellite radio obsolete. NATO bombers have there the tracing and coordination center between America, Europe and southern Africa. At least American released that other centers had more hidden and more strategic interest across Europe. DEMOLISHED.
In 1953 the regime capitulated to Ameicans. Since long, movements of rapprochement between both regimes was expressed. The Spanish State Bankruptcy accelerate the process. Access to the installation of foreign forces in return for economic aid. Besides start settling foreign heavy industry through low cost of labor.
In 1963 U.S. install nuclear power plant in Spain, its strategic value is incalculable. Technology and operators were Americans.
In 1968 Spain joined the treaty of non-proliferation. This does not prevent Americans keep on with its own nuclear policy at will, using the installed bases at its own. Nor off Spanish claims to be able to build a nuclear bomb.
Inoges, Soller, Estaca de Bares, Menorca, are fulcrums of general telecommunications network at service of Hunosa base.
The radar systems and antennas was part of a network of flight tracking for a possible nuclear war with URSS. In this war, each country was a puzzle piece and like it or not they have a specific place on the global map. USA had a special interest in Spain by its position in the Mediterranean: shutoff valve and first transatlantic scale.
At the end of the 70s American military bases in Spain have no longer interest in the outdated radar technology. 2 airports are now in civilian use. 2 LORAN tracing bases demolished, 2 aerial surveillance bases, Elizondo and the crumbling Sierr of Aitana also demolished. All other operating bases. The two shipyards were converted part of their business and private enterprise, which also shows the interest of this militarily.
It is remarkable the importance for the American military position development in the Mediterranean the Balearic Islands. It is not possible to determine whether base has or has not American personnel.
NATO reconverts military sector. Got rid of the bases of less value, and increased the most importants. Americans, thanks to the treaty firm in 1953, which provide 25% of the Spanish budget, served to get control of his allies by the economy. In addition served to control his enemies by his strategic positioning. Finally the countries where invested in facilities and equipment meet part of their wars, as in Iraq, Afghanistan, Somalia and Libya.
Spain has signed contracts for the sale of military equipment to countries from which supposedly have to defend, Venezuela for example. It is a question of money and represion, no of security.
The army, far from disappearing strengthens. With each tecnologial improvement increases their ability to control. In recent times it has transferred some of his power to Policial Services, which have been militarized in equipment and tactics.
Huge amounts of money are spend every year supporting this parasits that use the money in their own profit. As they have the atribution of violence enay tentative to stop the daing will be stop with blood.
The military pantomime is play in this global world as a any other speculative business. Instead of CEO a General, instead of employee soldier. Their work: spend and earn money. Their tools are the arms. But the raw material is human meat.
We must said no to the army, no to the thievery and assesination. As our voice is not heard, weselves have to impose the sanity. No doubt that now the war is on the minds and streets.
Spanish version http://tarcoteca.blogspot.com.es/2011/07/pasado-y-presente-de-las-bases.html
Published 9.7.2011, last edition 19.7.2015